The Occupation in Figures
Nagorno-Karabakh: 1988-1992, territory 4400 km2; Shusha: may 08, 1992, territory 289 km2; Lachin: may 18, 1992, territory 1840 km2; Kalbajar: april 2, 1993, territory 3054 km2; Aghdam: july 23, 1993, territory 1150 km2; Fizuli: august 23, 1993, territory 1390 km2; Jabrayil: august 23, 1993, territory 1050 km2; Gubadli: august 31, 1993, territory 802 km2; Zangilan: october 29, 1993, territory 707 km2.

The Christian History of Karabakh

The Christian History of Karabakh

In ancient times, Karabakh was a part of the ancient Azerbaijan state-Caucasian Albania, which mostly consisted of Turks and Caucasian tribes.

The examples of material culture , numismatic evidences discovered in Khankendi, Aghdere, Khojavend, Shusha of  Upland Karabakh, Berde, Terter, Aghdam, Aghjabedi, Fizuli,Beylegan as well as Lachin and Kalbajar of Lowland Karabakh  during investigations reflect thoroughly the ancient material culture of Karabakh, ethno-cultural state, social-economic standards of people, their living conditions, and generally the economic, social, and cultural history of this part of Azerbaijan.   

In early middle ages (IV century), after Christianity was adopted, Albanian Christia   

religious monuments were built in the Christian architectural style characterizing the  

building culture of Karabakh, the historical site of Azerbaijan, inIV-VII centuries.

During some periods, although different religions replaced one-another, and since it all  happened in the  historical fate of local people who were bound to their historical-ethnic lands, the nation could preserve its custom and tradition privacy, national character despite of changed religion and religious beliefs. However, it wasn’t always the same in everywhere.

The main population of this region different from alien Armenians consisted of ethnic groups belonging to Caucasian language group and being of Turkish origin living in the area between river Aras and Great Caucasus for thousand years by origin, language, and culture.

Depending on the influence of the period and time, there were different life styles, religious ideologies, so distinct features of spiritual culture appeared in connection with it. Different from other areas of Azerbaijan, the extension of religious divergency in Karabakh caused big changes in this area. When Christianity was replaced by Islam in Albania,  by making use of avtokhton Albanians’ being Christians,who kept  belief in  Christian religious ideology and lived in upland areas of Karabakh, many Armenian families had been  evicted there since XIX century.  They by grigorinizing the local Christian Albanians assimilated and named them “Hikes” and described the area as “a part of Hike country”.  

Thus, the researches display distinctly that material and spiritual culture of  Upper Karabakh is an inseparable part of Azerbaijan material and spiritual culture, and give grounds for proving that all opposite ideas are unsubstantiated.

The scientists who investigated architectural monuments of Caucasian Albania stated that these monuments are quite different from Armenians religious architectural monuments according to their architecture planning styles and most characteristic features. Those monuments belong to the national cultural heritage of our nation based on all historical facts.

Aghoghlan temple in Lachin region, Khudaveng temple in Kalbajar region, Amaras temple in Khojavend, Holy Elysee temple complex, Ganjaser temple  in Aghdere are examples of  those monuments.

Aghoghlan temple complex was built in IX century. It has a special place among Christian architectural monuments for its being efficient construction with basalt stones.Khudaveng temple complex, which is on the left bank of Terterchay in Kalbajar, was Khachin Albanian princedom. There was Albanian bishop’s residence and religious educational centre. The main temple built by the Albanian prince differs from the temples of neighbouring nations for its architectural features.

Holy Elysee temple complex is located in Aghdere region of Nagorno Karabakh. It was built 2000m above sea-level on the top of a high mountain. The temple which was encircled with fortress walls was founded in V century.

One of the most prominent monument of Caucasian Albanian Christian architecture Qandzasar temple complexes was built on the mountain on the left bank of Khachin river in Vangli village of Aghdere region. This temple, which was the residence of Albanian Christians for a long time, was called Ganjasar in the meaning of the main treasure of religion.

The role of Turkish tribes in the administration of the Albanian government, in the development of its culture and architecture was undeniable. Therefore, most historians use the phrase “Albanian –Turkish architecture” when they speak about the Albanian architecture, and it is quite appropriate for that period. Some of these tribes living in the area of Albania became Christians by adopting Christianity, the other ones adopted Islam later. 

However, the Armenians who had no historical roots in Caucasus, tried to appropriate the Albanian monuments and change their natonal identity with the purpose of creating their historical traces artificially. The monuments which were subject to most appropriation are of the period of Christianity. They tried to armenize them by following the emblems and symbols of Christian religion as well as the alike drawing samples among stone carvings and wall paintings on this type of monuments, so it has been resulted in falsifying the history.   

The Georgian historian A. Chavchavadze reflected the appropriation facts of Azerbaijan monuments of the Christian period by Armenians thoroughly in his work “Armenians and Blood crying Stones”. Armenians call Azerbaijan lands, which they have taken shelters once, “Hy country- Eastern Armenia” by grigorinizing aboriginal Albanians artificially. However, investigators indicate that even monuments of Christianity period correspond to neither the Armenian language (grigoranity) nor Armenian culture and origin. Thus, the historical- archaeological and architectural investigation of Albanian- Christian monuments in Azerbaijan areas helps to clarify most peculiarities of Christianity. Moreover, one reason of appropriation of Albanian monuments by Armenians is to subordinate Albanian Apostol church to Armenian Grigorian church by abolishing it with the help of Russia in 1836. In the result of the Russian tsars’ policy in Caucasus, significance given by them to Armenians the centre of Albanian churches was converted to Armenians’ grigorian church groundlessly. Therefore, Albanian religious centre was moved to Echmiadzin.

Albanian History

Modern Azerbaijan comprising of current Armenia and one part of Georgia is historical state located in the area of South Dagestan. It was formed  In IV-III centuries BC.  and occupied in VIII century by Arab caliphate. Initially capital was Gabala, later Berde. In IV century BC. christianity was state religion during the ruling of Albanian state and it was under influence of christian ideology to some extent.

Outstanding caucasian scientist and historian Yevgeni Ignatevich Krupnov stated:

“There should be no restriction and obligation in the study of Albanian history. Historians from distinct countries study the history of Albania. However, one thing is obvious : Azerbaijanis should research history and destiny of  Caucasus Albania more than anyone.  They are accountable in front of world science and are in debt to the world science.”

Corresponding to the information of Strabon population of Albania consists of tribes speaking in 26 languages. Utis, gargars, amazons, sovdes,kaspis, mags, sisaks, mards, amards, ariaks, anariaks, gels, legs and other  names of tribes and nations living in Albania are mentioned in sources. The most ancient caucasian and turkish tribes were from avtoxton ethnicity.

From the first centuries of our era persian tribes migrated to Albania by the order of Sasani leaders, begining  from III-IV centuries migration of new turkish tribes as well as huns, subars, khazars, barsils to Caucasian Albania started. Until  the arrival of arabians population of Albania was comprised of  3 parts – caucasian, turkish and persian people.

Specialists say that to link the word “Alban” with  turkish tribes is much more reasonable. Because at the moment tribe called alban is living in Kazakhstan in Middle Asia. According to the recent investigations turkish origin of Caucasian albans was proved. 

Religion in Albania

Christianity was spread in Caucasian Albania  after catholic Saint Eliseus’s  propaganda in 54- 57 years. For that reason Albanian church is called catholic church. It is one of the most ancient churches in Caucasus, also in Christian world.

Albania is one of the countires established before IV century when christianity was not proclaimed as a state religion. In accordance with its traditions in the begining of first centuries first christian missioners from Jerusalem and Suria, catholics and their students came to Albania and established first christian communities.

According to Albanian traditions there are 2 stages replacing each other in the dissemination of christianity: the name of the Apostolic  stage is associated with apostles such as Thaddeus, Bartholomew, Thaddeus’ disciple  Eliseus. It is also called as Syrophile period  dating back to IV century. Second stage is  associated with  Gregory the Illuminator and  the Albanian king, Urnair.

In I-II centuries wide popagation of christianity in the north-east and eastern part of Jerusalem after Pavel is associated with Phoma,  Andrei, Bartholomew, Phoma’s  brother Ardai, and Thaddeus’ students Eliseus and Mar.

These catholics and their students were proliferating religion in Suria( center was Antiokhia), small Greek state Osroena (center was Edessa), Nisibin, Mesopotamia (between two rivers),  small Armenia, as well as in the  east and northern – east part  in Iran (Salaphki-Ktesiphon) and southern Caucasus countries - Georgia, Albania.

Influence of Christianity on Albania and creation of Christian community here are associated both  with catholic Bartholomew and Faddei. Musa Kalankatli says:

“However when justice appeared, our hero and imperceptible creature –Father came to take care of us and sent his pupils to all parts of the world to spread the religion. Catholic Faddei who came to Armenia and then was killed by Sanaturk in province Artaz  was sent for eastern dwellers”- Musa Kalankatli I, VI.

 Albanian historian Musa Kalankatli says:

“ Student of  Faddei  Eliseus returning to Jerusalem talks about Faddei’s suffering to all catholics. Eliseus receives appointment  from Jacob, first patriarch of Jerusalem and Jesus’s brother. He had been appointed to East.” – Musa Kalankatli, I, VI.

When authors say “other catholics” they mean that Faddei, Eliseus and othe catholics’ activities coincide to same time -  during I-II centuries. As you see in this text East is refering to Albania. Investigations of perceptions such as “ East”, “Eastern country”, “North-east” used by Musa Kalankatli are evidence that they refer to Albania or country of albans situated in the Eastern borders of christian world recpectively to Jerusalem.

 In  the first Syrophile  stage of spread of Christianity in Albania Bible sayings were proliferating not only in Near East and middle east but also in the Arami language. This is associated to the activities of catholics and their students as well as activities of missioners from Syria. Musa Kalankatli presented information which allow us to reason Syrophile stage; activities of Syria monks in IV-V centuries in Albania, and arami inscriptions on christian monuments are examples of it.

II  greek- inclined  stage of christianity was common in all over South Caucausus, but was different in terms of duration and its features and it can be explained with political grounds. Investigations revealed that the relations of albanian, armenian, iber churchs with empire church should be explined by “political conditions, in other words dependence level of the country from Eastern Rome empire should be considered relatively with dependence level of the church.” It is known that there was more dependence in Armeni , relatively low in Iberia, and absolutely no dependence in Albania. Therefore, after  greek-inclined illuminator Grigori and his grandson Grigoris  albanian church carried on its relation with Jerusalem church.  All this proves that prevailing fact in science that first christian propagandists were sent to Albania from Armenia  is unjustified. It can be said also about the opinions that christian propogandists working in rightshore provinces of Albania came from Armenia and  propogandists acting in the leftshore northern-west provinces of Albania came from Iberia. As known Sasanis had no constant treatment towards Southern Caucasus christian nations which were under their ruling. Victory of christianity in Eastern Rome empire strained this relation. Different christian sectas combating with state church were started to be protected in the area of Sasani state. According to Musa Kalankatli, alban-arshaki leaders such as Urnair, II Vache, III Vachagan were fighting againist different buddism religions to vanish them. 2 of the orders adopted in Aguen meeting held in V century were devoted to prosecute remnants of religions before christianity.

Since VIII century northern part of Azerbaijan became under influence of arabians and Islam. But majority of Albania’s population practise christianity officially proclaimed together with Mehranis, representatives of leading generation. As in other neighboring christian countries there were also other religious streams out of main religion and people in these sectas which are enemies of Grigorian stream were brutally prosecuted.

Armenian Grigorian church had exclusive role in the violation of the freedom and independence rights of Albanian church. Armenian catholics were using assistance from Arabic caliphate as they have done during  Sasani’s ruling, to reach their goal and to make Albanian church be obedient to them. Amavilar, seeking back in South Caucasus taking advantage from the conflict between Armenians and Albans they created opportunity for making Albanian church obey to the Armenian church.

Armenian catholic wrote following letter to Ilia Abdu l- Malik :

Armenian church excluded Albanian clergymen from their positions and began to change faith of Albans to Grigorianism living in mountainous parts which cannot be reached by Arabians. Armenian clerics caused to vanish credit of Arran church among population and demolished all monuments of Albanian culture by the help of Arabic leaders. And they left nothing to recall about Albans.  All these actions were implemented initially by the help of  caliphate and then other invaders. Religious figures of Grigorian church destroyed Arran monuments but firstly they turned to slums.

I.P.Petrushevski indicates that armenian church was way to armenianize country in Albania. And its role became noticable beginning from VIII century. So since that time  armenian catholic  Yegi overthrew Albanian catholic   Nerses (Bakruv) with the assistance of arab leaders and movement of pravoslavic, greek-inclined , georgian –inclined  people,  indicating attempt of defending independence of Albanian church was created by armenian monophisits.”

 Despite these difficulties and critical combat condition Albanian catholic church managed to remain independent until 1836. However, in 1836 its functioning was stopped by Russia and passed to under the obeyance of Grigorian church. In spite of this in 2003 alban catholic church was registered in State Committee on Religious Institutions  and its activity was restored again.

Albanian Cross Stones

The architecture composition, constuctive, and decorative plastic solution of Albanian cross stones, which are memorial stones and Stellas spread in bulk and single forms in different regions of the Azerbaijan and Armenian Republic, are inseparable from their content and symbolic identity. In the memory plastic of early and mature middle ages of Caucasian Albania certain pre-christianity outlook and symbolic imaginations were depicted. The images of Albanian cross stones first organically crossed with the characters of religious symbolic Stellas during many centuries, and then were formed under the influence of two- three religions.  The whole identity, originality, and the main difference from Armenian crossers lie in it. As it is shown, pre-Christianity stellas which bear pagan symbolic drawings and notions about the world system played a certain role in the formation of Albanian tombstone, memorial and border stellas, cross stones. The cross which symbolized the sun, fertility, life tree before asserts their being related to the new Christian religion.

Albanian cross stones astonish with their boldness in the solution of the art of architecture which emerged in the result of organic synthesis of architecture, art, and religious symbols based on people’s beliefs and traditions formed during centuries.

The researches show that long before Christianity in the formation of crosses the role of ancient Turkish kins was great. People of those periods created the description of the sun on the ground, then raising it high on the wood, stone with the desire of bringing it together with the sky, and it caused the formation of present form of the crosses.

It is the reason that Albanian crosses were adjusted mostly to classical traditions, so Albanian crosses are directly related to pre-Christian elements and religious rites

The image of a cross joins different unrelated decorative arrangements with one-another on the Albanian cross stones.Albanoan cross is the only cross in the world which bears the signs of pre-Christianity beliefs and indications of the comprehension of the world. All compositions of these stones are reflected like the symbols of the link between the sky and the land, the sun, light, and fertility.

The experts sum up all the Albanian cross stones scattered on the South Caucasian area mostly under 4 groups.  They are Khachin, Artsak, Jugha, and Yenivang cross stones. Khachin cross stones, which dates back from the period of Albanian monarchy, were mostly investigated in the area of Kalbajar region. It was done by Doctor of Architecture D. A. Akhundov and Doctor of Philosophy M.D. Akhundov.  The most interesting sample of Khachin cross stones are two adjoining cross stones in Khudavang temple complex.

Artsak cross stones are the stones located in the area of historical Artsak province.  The most popular of them and arousing the great interest in scientific literature cruciform Artsak cross stone. This stone (1633) is rather interesting and original, it was solved within the framework of canons which was adopted in every part of Caucasian Albania.( the spoken cross stone was taken to Echmiadzin and is presented  as an art example of Armenian thought today).  Despite of its cruciform, a big panel consisting of three circle has  the main art and symbolic dominance in the image of Stella. The middle circle is in the form of geometric network with 8 equally divided parts. 

Jugha cross stones  are mainly on the bank of River Aras on the border with South Azerbaijan.There is the same description on most of interesting Jugha cross stones with unique solutions: The bodies of  two winged dragons facing each-other are covered with horn armors, their open mouths were turned aside. Between two dragons the winged corona or the man’s head with coronalike hair was described.  It looks like Isa’s head according to its icon graphs signs. D.A. Akhundov notes that in this complicated description the symbolic group which joins several religions and faiths (Zoroastrianism, Mitraism, Christianity, and Islam) was presented by Albanian craftsmen.  The descriptions were placed on christians’ grave stones , a single cross or crosses prove it. Isa is protected by dragons which are remnants of previous religions in this description.  The heads of dragons with open mouths and without clenching teeth turned towards Isa’s head prove it. These Christian – pagan compositions emerged in the result of the existence of different religions within one nation. The only nation like this in South- Caucasus was Caucaian Albanians.

Yenivang cross stones were discovered mainly in West Azerbaijan( present Arrmenian Republic) in the area of Yenivang Albanian temple and west regions of the Azerbaijan Republic. Yenivang cross stones look like Jugha cross stones in terms of composition and solution. In most of these stones the figure of God is in the first plan.

The main characteristic and differentiating feature of Yenivang cross stones (Nowadays, Armenians present this temple with the name of Novarang to the world as an ancient Armenian temple) is the image of Isa on the top and base of the cross. On the head of these descriptions, there is a moon, supposedly, mitraist forks. The latest and most mature Yenivang cross stones date back to XIII century.  Most of these cross stones with Alban writings on either were destroyed or their historical importance was damaged by breaking alban writings on them after Armenians’ deportation to this area. It is obvious from these cross stones the Christian God and Mitrad, which were worshipped in early Middle Ages in Caucasian Albania, were derivatives of the same god of a single religious art image. It should be noted that the most important art samples and historically important ones of these Albanian Stellas were carried off to Armenia zealously during the USSR period.

Albanian Architecture

The examples of Albanian architecture were discovered in the areas of the Azerbaijan, Armenian Republics, and Daghestani and were investigated.  The most interesting models of Albanian architecture preserved till our time are fortresses and fortifications for defence and churches, temples of a religious character. The Turkish kins had an undeniable role in the management of Albanian government and in the development of its culture and architecture. Therefore, some historians use the phrase “Albanian Turkish architecture” while speaking about the Albanian architecture, and this forms full conformity with that period.  Some of these tribes who live in the area of Albania became Christians by adopting Christianity, the others adopted Islam later. Derbent fortress, Javanshir fortress, Chiraggala and others are among the buildings distinguished today for their being grandiose ones for defence which belong to Albanian cultural heritage.

Most of monuments of Caucasian Albanian period reached till our period by preserving their initial forms. Khudavang temple complex in Kalbajar region(XIII century), Aghoghlan temple in Koshalar village of Lachin region (IX century), Amaras temple in Sos village of Khojavand region(IV century), Saint Elysee  temples in Shaki (II century), and Aghdere(IV century) regions, Gandzasar temple in Vang village of Aghdere region(XIV century), Lakit temple in Gakh region(Vcentury), Gum temple(VI century), Yeddikilse(Seven churches) temple(IVcentury)Kurmukh temple(XII century) Hagapat temple in the area of West Azerbaijan( the area of present Azerbaijan Republic), Goshavang  temple,Aghtala temple, Tatev temple, Uzunlar Temple, Yenivang temple, Senain temple  are the brilliant samples of Albanian temple architecture which reached till our period among these monuments.

Albanian architectural art always arosed interest and distinguished with its specific complex colour , technique, unique beauty and style.   The other Caucasian people developed their culture and architecture by making use of ancient Albanian culture which always arosed interest and drew attention like all other innovations. 

All types of architecture which belong to Eastern Christianity developed in Albania. The characteristic buildings of the first period of Albanian Christianity were churches. These churches consisted of profitable temples with an oblong worship hall.  The top of these temples were covered with double simple stones. The special architecture called round temples in the style of Christian architecture were spread in Albania and this style belonged to only Albanians.It has its own specific reason. Thus, the construction of round temples goes back to early Christian period, and these temples were built in the periods when Christianity wasn’t completely adopted, and it was mixed with the worship to celestial bodies according to investigators.

This feature also shows itself in Albanian crosses of Early Christian period. The popular form of the Christian architecture in Albania is sovmas.   Though Sovmas played the role of small chapels on caravan roadsides, actually they were memorial buildings. Sovmas with and without sanctuaries are also met in Albania. The wall of Sovmas was decorated with sighting stones of elegant patterns. The most complicated buildings of Albanian period are considered basilicas and abbeys. Most investigators consider that this style belonged to only Albanians because the elements on the walls of architectural monuments of Albanian period are evaluated like characteristic features of the monuments of only this period.

Khachin Princedom

In Middle Ages, Christian Albanian Melik which existed in the area of Nagorno Karabakhof Azerbaijan was a growth period of Arsakh –Khachin princedom in XII-XIIIcenturies. The capital of this princedom, which was a part of Ancient Albania, was located in the basins of Khachinchay and partially Terter River. One of followers of Albanian Mehraniler dynasty Hasan –Jalal (1215-1261) was the lord of this princedom. The exact geneologies which prove Hasan Jalal’s being from Mehraniler dynasty also exist. Thus, Hasan Jalal’s direct genetic relationship with Albanian Mehraniler dynasty and as well as his political power legacy from VII to XIII centuries are being followed. Hasan Jalal was a sovereign prince of Khachin and partially Arran, and he wasn’t dependent on the Georgian tsar.  This Arsakh –Khachin ruler was mentioned with the highest titles in Armenian, Georgian, and Persian synchronous sources as well as epigraphic writings and called “Majesty”, “Albanian great master”, “Albanian tsar”, “tsar”, “great prince of Khachin and Arsakh countries”, “prince of Khachin countries”, “majestic, brilliant ruler”, “prince of princes”. Həsən- Hasan Jalal was distinguished with the title of “absolute ruler”.  The stone post of Ganjasar temple reads:  “native absolute ruler of Arsakh country and Khachin boundaries”.  The most grandiloquent title of this ruler was shown on stone post of Ganjasar temple written in 1240: “I, Hasan Jalal- an obedient slave of God, Vakhtang’s son, Great Hasan’s grandson, native absolute ruler of Great Arsakh with wide areas…”  It is beyond doubt that Hasan Jalal’sgenetic relationships with authoritative dynasties characterize high position of Khachin-Arsakh’s ruler. His years of reign can be appraised Albanian economic, political, and cultural renaissence. This growth is reflected in the literature, military construction, architecture, formation of cult devices. Kirakos from Ganja wrote his “History” book in this period.  With Hasan Jalal’s direction, who was eager to prove his succesion relationship with great Albanian mehranis and trying to state incessanty of power of Albanian ruler, Moisey Kalankatli kept writing his book “The History of Albanians” and added four new chapters to it.

In those chapters, Hasan Jalal’s years of reign and the construction of Ganjabasar complex during his government years were reflected. The Albanian historical-literary tradition was rebirthed with this action. Hasan Jalal could remove material-spiritual values of most countries formed during many centuries from the stage of history, establish good relationships with Mongols, and ensure their being on good terms with Albanian people.  Albanian people could preserve their ethnic consciousness during severe historical trials. They defended the Albanian language, territory, political and religious unity.  The population of Arsakh- Lachin princedom created different written monuments in the Albanian language in XII-XIII centuries. (The people who inhabited in the flat part of Albania communicated in the Arran-Albanian, Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages and worked written monuments.

Ganjabasar temple compex was built at Hasan Jalal’s urgent request.  The ancient parts of Ganjasar temple existed long before Hasan Jalal’s years of reign and was the family grave of Jalairis who were rulers of Khachin. Hasan Jalal was buried here in 1261.  The main church of Ganjabasar was built with the Albanian patriarch catholicos Nerses’ advice and Hasan Jalal’s command from 1216 till 1238.  The Ruler himself called this church “the throne- crown church of Albania.”   The stone post of the church writes: This church was built for Albanians.  84 stone posts existed in this church. Ganjabasar temple complex located in Vangli village of Aghdere region in Nagorno- Karabakh is a pearl of the Albanian architecture of Middle Ages, and there is no analogue for it in the Armenian architecture. The period which Hasan Jalal lived in   is distinguished by its richness in the Caucasian history. Most historians of that century gave a thorough description of that period.  Some of them (for example, Kirakos from Ganja) took an active part in the historical events happened in that period.  In 1227 or a little bit later,  Jalaleddin Mangburnu’s vizier Garaf al Mulk came up to  Khachin fortress by collecting the required taxes.

Hasan Jalal came down in this fortress. He could escape by paying 20 thousand dinars and freeing prisoners.  Hasan Jalal among most princes showed his obedience to Mongolsin 1236.  The properties of the obedient rulers were not touched.  They didn’t pay any taxes for a certain period. Soon Mongols’ ruthless march to Khachin began.  Even impregnable fortresses couldn’t survive in front of Mongols’ strong pressure and fire.  “The land was covered with the dead bodies of killed people, blood was shed like water, nobody was given a mercy, and piles of bones after this event reminded the mountains formed with stones during long years.” Hasan knowing about Mongols’ march found shelter in Kokhanaberd fortress together with inhabitants of his province. Mongols encircled the fortress, and began talks with sieged ones having realized the difficulty of the seizure of the fortress.  Mongols presented Khachin ruler his country with supplementary areas. Hasan Jalal took some preparatory measures for frequent reception of future mongol messengers to his country by realizing the inevitability of paying endless taxes beforehand, provided Mongols with everything generously, and survived his citizens. It is supposed that the marriage of Jormaghun’s son Bora Nain’s with Hasan’s daughter Ruzukan is related to that period.  During this period he could win the trust of Mongol’s chief command and had possibility to influence him to a certain extent. However, all these didn’t help Hasan Jalal to avoid the forthcoming severe trials. Later, mongol tax collectors under the leadership of Argu and Bugay, who played a disastrous role in Hasan Jalal’s life, came.  Hasan jalal was subject to some severe punishments in the presence of all Albanian nobles by Buqay and he destroyed his invincible fortresses. Hasan could only survive by having paid him  too much gold and silver. Finally, Hasan Jalal achieved to find a powerful guardian for himself. Gold Orda khan Bati’s son Christian Sartag became the defender of his coreligionists. Hasan Jalal’s heritage properties-Jaraberd, Akana, and Gargar, were given back to him. He could get substantial privileges for Khachin ruler Albanian catholicos Nerses.  Jalal relationship wit Sartag lasted till Albanian ruler’s death. Argu’s insidious deeds made Jalal to start a long journey to Chief Mongol khakan Munke’s palace.  He went to Sartag Munke’s palace when Bati khan died in 1255. Munke issued a decree about Hasan Jalal’s princedom and owning a property.  Argun was called to Mongolia and he was severely charged in the court.  In 1256, smbat Orbelian, who was on good terms with Argu, could release him during his visit to Munke’s palace. Two lawyers who were against Argu were executed, and the former defendant returned to Caucasus with his previous powers. Hasan Jalal could come back to his native lands only five years later. However, he was captured and exposed to intolerable tortures. Hasan’s daughter Ruzukan hastened to “the hope and asylum of Christians, the great and famous ruler” Hulakun’s wife Doguz khatun to save his father’s life. (Hulaku’s wife was Christian). Having known about it Arqun ordered to kill him during the night. He was cut in joint parts, his son Atabey could get his father’s dead body and take it to Ganjasar. He was buried in the family graveyard in Ganjasar. About all the next Albanian catholicos and Hasan Jalal’s family members were buried in Ganjasar. The gravestone inscriptions prove it, too.  Albanian Hasan Jalal’s family (Jalalilar) was entitled “malik”(monarch) by Jahan shah Garagoyunlu. Later, Jalalilar family was divided into five autonomous Albanian feudal princedom- monarchies. (Gulustan, Jaraberd, Khachin, Varanda, Dizag) The title of “malik” was added to surnames. (Malik Yeganov, Malik Shahnazarov, etc.) These surnames which adopted Islam were changed into Azerbaijani ones. It’s significant that monarchies are characteristics for Karabakh, i.e these political organizations first appeared in Karabakh. Later, in XVII-XIX centuries these monarchies were met in Sunik, Shaki, and it’s beyond doubt is connected with the migration of monarchs.  There were many attempts to describe the institute od monarchy as a characteristic event for “Armenian reality” in Armenian history which was against the truth. The research of Azerbaijanian, as well as Armenian feudal generations proves that there were no monarchies in Armenian surroundings in Minor Asia and Iran. These political bodies belong to Albanian feudal generations lived in Khachin in late middle ages. These generarions are connected with Hasan Jalal’s family, Albanian Mehranilar and Arshakilar dynasties. Armanian historians trying to prove monarchies being of Armenian origin show monarch families from Irevan, Sunik, and Gafan inXVII-XIX centuries as an example.       However, it is known that all these monarchies originated from Arsakh- Karabakh. It should be noted that coming to the term of monarch, it’s one of the results drawn from the socio-legal norms of migrating Garagoyunlu military noblemen.  The terms tanuter, paron are characteristic for Armenian reality. It seem obvious that Albanian feudal noblemen adopted the term monarch, the institute of monarch with a special purpose, and this case was the result of their intention to separate themselves from Armenians. It’s important that Hasan Jalal’s family had a secular government till XV century, from XV century (when it was divided into five parts) this family members performed the duties of patriarch catholicos of Albanian autocephalous apostolic church in Ganjasar. Therefore, they had become spiritual leaders of Arsakh- Khachin princedom since the abolition of Albanian church in 1836.

Sources:

Azerbaijan History (7 volumes) I, II volumes, Baku, 2007

The Political History and Historical Geography of Caucasian Azerbaijan,  by Farida Mamadova, Baku, 1993

Moisey Kalankatli’s Work “Albanian History” Like a source About  the Social System of Caucasian Albania, by Farida Mammadova, Baku, 1977 (in  the Russian language)

Azerbaijan in VII_IX centuries ,  by Ziya Bunyadov , Baku, 2008

Albanian History , Mkhitar Gosh –Albanian chronicles , By Moisey Kalankatli, Baku, 2007

From the history of Azerbaijani Turks’ Formation, by Giyasaddin Geybullayev, Baku, 1994

Christianity in Caucasian Albania, by Rashid Goyushov, Baku, 1984  (in  the Russian language)

Ideology and Culture in Caucasian Albania in III_VII centuries, Moscow, 1958 (in  the Russian language)

Sketches about Albanian History and Culture, By K.V. Trever, Moscow, Leningrad, 1959 (in  the Russian language)