Irevan: Historical Information

Irevan: Historical Information

The territory of the city Iravan was annexed by different states in different times, such as Urartu, Sasani, the Arabian Caliphate, Sajids, Shaddadids, Seldgugs, Eldanizians,, Ilhanians, Teymurians, Garagoyunlu Aghgoyunlu, Safavids, Əfsharis,  Gajiars states. Socio-economic development of he city Iravan   as a center goes to the Chukhur-Saad beylerbeylik and the Iravan Khanate periods. At the medieval history sources the name of the city was stated as Revan or Iravan.

During the archaeological excavations carried out in 1950 around Ganli Tepe (hill) situating in the south-western part of the city Iravan, Armenian historians discovered the remainders of Erebuni (Iripuni) fortress built during the reign of Argishtini I, Tsar of Urartu and they connected the history of Irevan with this finding.

Erebuni Fortress was built only for the military fortification purpose and the city infrastructure was never formed aroud it. In fact, ancient Erebuni Fortress had neither spatial nor historical connection with present Armenia unlike the Urartus had nothing to do with the Armenians.  There was a great distance between the Iravan settlement (populated area) which was formed as a city in the Middle Ages and Erebuni fortress found during the archaeological excavations in 1950.

Only after the second half of XX century, the territory of Iravan city expanded  and encircled      Ganli Tepe where Erebuni fortress was situated. According to cuneiform belonging to the Urarturians, it becomes clear that in the first quarter of BC Aghri valley (the left bank of the river Araz and downstream of the Arpachay) was considered to be the territory of the people called Aza untill it was occupied by the Urarturians.

Equation the city Iravan with Erebuni (Irpuni) fortress founded by  the Tsar of Urartu Argishti I in 782 BC, is a graphic example of falsification of the history. For the sake of his Armenian nationality wife Academician  Boris Piotrovski put forward  hypothesis which says:”Maybe the name of the Urarturian city Erebuni continues living in the name of Yerevan (Iravan), the capital city  of Armenia”. And it gave a great opportunity to the Armenians to celebrate solemnly the 2750th anniversary of Yerevan city in 1968. So, the Armenian set all the bells ringing that “ the city of Iravan was even 30 years older than ancient Rome”.

Trying to connect the name of Iravan with “Armenian speaking” prophet Noah (Nuh) once more indicates how great liars the Armenians are. It turned out that”the ship built by prophit Noah (Nuh) took the side to the top of Ararat Mountain The very first word that Prophet Noah expressed when he saw a piece of land was “Yerevan” (i.e “Seen” in the Armenian language). The present-day city of Yerevan was supposed to appear in this space.

The great Armenian writer Khachatur Abovyan writes in his article " Brief essay about the history of Irevan city”: " In the early thirteenth century the Armenian writers do not even mention the name of Yerevan city, since 1209 (by chronology of Christianity) they have been calling the place “small area”.

According to the legend circulating among the people, the name of Yerevan was either taken from the Tsar Ervand’s name or  came from the words “yerevil, yerevan” that meant “saw, seemed”. It is entirely fictitious.  More precisely, the city had become more popular since 1441, after the conquer of the city by the Persians in period of Shah Jahan (ie. Garagoyunlu emirs). 

From that time till 1827  Iravan was occupied sometimes by the Turks,sometimeas by the Persians, had repeatedly passed from hand to hand.Including the last Iravan viceroy the city of Iravan and its province was governed by  10 Turkic pashas and 33 Persian khans.

Irevan province was occupied by the Arab troops in 658. As a rule, the management of he South Caucasus Emirates were entrusted to the Turks during the caliphate.

A famous Turkish geographer and traveler Evliya Chelebi considers Irevan as a settlement to belong to XV century. According to him, in 810 by Hijri calendar (1407-1408), a very rich merchant  by name  Khaja khan Lahijani, who was  one of Amir Timur’s merchants, embarked on very fertile land Revan land, settled with his family members there, at the expense of growing rice there he made a fortune and put the foundation of the village. Evliya Chelebi then adds that Shah Ismail, the head of the Safavids State, gave an order to his vezir Revangulu khan on fortress construction   in 915 by Hijri (AH) date (1509-1510). It took him 7 years to complete the construction and in his turn vezir  called the fortress  “Revan”.

Some researchers agree with the history of building Iravan and the fortress written by Ovlya Chalabi, some are argueing about the city history to go ancient times considering other authors to be right.  The fact is that Shah Ismayil intrusted his knight (military commander) Revangulu khan to construct the fortress on the bank of the river Zengi, strategially important place after he conquered the city of Iravan in 1501. Rəvangulu khan completed the construction of the fortress in 7 years.  As a result of the wars between the Ottoman and Safavid Empires the city of Iravan 14 times passed from hand to hand. Each time the city exposed to certain destruction and was reconstructed late. In 1554 Ottoman troops seized the city of Iravan putting to rout the city completely. Vezier Lele Mustafa Pasha, the Ottoman governor, re-occupied the city in 1580. Iravan fortress described by travellers and historians was built in the place of the old fortress, by Farhad Pasha during the Ottomans’ occupationto in 1582-1583.

The fortress with the length of 850 m and width of 790 m was in the shape of square and covered 7 ha area.  Double fortress-walls were 10, 5-12 m in height.Single walls of the fortress were on the rocky place washed by the river Zengi. There were three gates of the castle:  in the south Tabriz Gate, in north Shirvan Gate (or Meydan Gapisi (Square Door) and Korpu (Bridge) Gate. In 1679 a bridge that was called Girmizi Korpu (Red Bridge) was built on the river Zengi between Meydan Gate and Old City. 

However, in 1604 the troops of Shah Ismayil I took the city back from the Turks, he pursued the policy of “burnt land” when his troops drew back as a result of counter-attack, removed the whole population of Chukhur-Saad beylerbeyliyi including Irevan population to the other side of the river Araz. In 1635 the Ottoman troops re-occupied Irevan. In accordance with Gasri-Shirin Treaty signed between the Ottomans and the Safavids in 1639 Iravan province including the city of Iravan was redominated by the Safavids. After the collapse of the Safavids, the city was occupied by the Turks in 1723. In 1733 Nadir Shah set free Iravan city from the Ottomans. Independent khanates were created after the death of Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747. The city of Irevan became the capital of the khannet with the same name.

Mosques, caravanserais, bath-houses, recreation parks considered to be rare architectural masterpieces were built in Irevan fortressand the city. Drinkable water pipeline was drained from Giırkhbulag plateau to the city, owing to irrigation canals Iravan became the land of gardens. The earthquake on June 4, 1679 destroyed all the constructions in the city of Iravan, but the city was soon restored with the help of Nakhchevan, Ganja, Karabakh, Tabriz, and Maku counties. Khan Palace or Sardar Palace which are considered to be rare pearls of the Eastern architecture was erected by Iravan viceroy Emirguna khan Gajar (1605-1625) and was improved by Husseyinali khan (1762-1783), the khan of Iravan, in 1760-1770.

In 1791 Huseyinali khan’s son Muhammad khan (1784-1805) built  the Mirror Hall (known as “Shushebend”) and  Summer Palace.

European travelers Jan Tavernye, Jan Sharden, Kerr-Porter, James Morier, Monpere, Cameron, Lynch and others were in Irevan at different times, described the Khan's Palace, its Mirror Hall, mosques, pools and bath-houses in the castle and the city in his writings, as well as the underground marble staired way passing down from the Zangi River. The city of Iravan consisted of 4 massives: Gala, Shahri (or the Old City), Tepebashi (now called Kond) and Demirbulag (now called Karanki arch). There was central Market Square situating between Gala and other housing estates. Shehri housing-estate was stretching along the right bank of the Girkhbulag River to Iravan castle. The Central Bazar (Market) and all the squares, many caravanserais and bath-houses were located in this part of the city. Tepebashi was located on the hill between the Zengi River and Shehri housing-estate. Numerous gardens of famous people of Iravan city separated Tepebashi and Shehri housing estates.  The famous Khan Baghi (garden) and Summer House belonging to Huseyingulu khan were on the right bank of the Zengi River. Demirbulag housing –estate was located in the south-west of Shehri massive and in the east of Iravan castle. Jafar bey Mosque and bath-house, including caravanserai were located in that part of the city.

To seize Irevan fortress locating in a strategic position between the Ottoman Empire and the Qajar state assumed great importance for Russia. However, the Russian troops’ attempts to seize the castle in 1804 and 1808 were gone for nothing. For more than 20 years Irevan fortress could bravely stand against interrupted attacks of the Russian troops. After all, on October 1, 1827 the fortress collapsed as the Armenians denoted the Russian command the poor points of the castle walls.  When Pashkevich heard the news about the conquest, he was outside of the fortrss and the Russian soldiers had already begun looting. All of the houses were razed to the ground as a result of cannon-balls, the street filled up with corpses. On October 2, a victory parade was held in front of the South Gate of the castle. Victory march was played and cannon salutes were given.It caused collapsing of damaged part of the castle walls. A lot of people were killed. Paskevich was awarded to"Count Erivanski" title and II rank Saint George Order by Emperor.Other generals also got the highest awards.After some time even a special medal was instituted which was named “For the Conquest of Iravan Fortress”. 

Russian Emperor Nikolay I was in Riga when the news about the occupation of Iravan castle was given to him.  Hasan Khan’s sword was presented the Tzar. In his turn the Tsar, gave it to a city ratush as a present (This sward is still kept in” "Chamber of Weapons", in the Kremlin). On November 8, after returning to Petersburg the Emperor visited the church in the Winter Palace together with his family and he prayed there on the occasion of the conquest of Iravan castle.  Under the applause the Emperor carried the keys and four flags with him taken from the castle during the occupation walking in the streets and demonstrating them.

Inspired by the collapse of Irevan fortress the Russian troops occupied also the cities of South Azerbaijan Tabriz, Khoy, Urmia, Ardabil and Selmas at the end of 1827, at the beginning of 1828.  The annexation of Iravan khanate to Russia was formalized on February 10, 1828 according to the treaty signed in the village of Tukmenchay locating on Tabriz-Tehran road. 

Iravan under the Russian occupation

A few days after the occupation of the Irevan Khanate – on October 6, 1827,  Pashkevich gave an order on establishing " Iravan Interim Department” in that territory as a new Russia regime. General  Krasovski ,the commander  of the local army, was appionted a chief of the  department,  interim commandant of the fortress was appointed lieutenant-colonel Bronevski  and  Archbishop Astarakesi was given an assignment to be an office member.                                                                                                                                                

Interim Office  had to fulfil a number of  responsibilities: to take power in the country, to introduce proper order,  to cater the army constantly,  to defend Iravan, Sardarabad and Abbasabad castles, to make relationship with Georgia, to develop cotton-growing, to increase salt-production, to calculate Iravan khan’s estates, flocks and income, to confiscate all his personal estate and real property.

The Armenians achieved their aims owing to unlimited authorities given to Nerses by Krasovsky.  However 4500 poods grain had to be distributed among the people out of war, the majority of it was given to the Armenians in minority.  Muslims were deprived of the state protection. In regard to it, Paskevich wrote in his letter addressed to the Chief of the General Staff on April 2, 1828:” "I would never imagine that Krasovski will  act only with the will of Nersesi, won’t care about the ruling of the newly captured province ignoring my instructions given to him, won’t patronize the Muslims (three-quarter of the population),won’t  allocate funds for them”. The discrimination against the local Muslims led to the increasing of discontent, many of them couldn’t bear the injustice any more and in the end they had to leave their country and move to Iran or Turkey. Pashkevich worried about assembling of the discontented Muslim population on opposite side of the border. Therefore, he removed Nersesi from his administrative activity at Interim Office. After the signing of Turkmenchay Treaty, Pashkevich removed General Krasovsky from his post--- the head of Interim Office, exiled Archbishop Nerses to Bessarabiya for his evil deeds against the Muslims.

According to Turkmenchay Treaty signed on February 10, 1828, the Iravan and Nakhchevan khanetes were annexed to Russia. On March 20, 1828 Tsar Nicholas I approved this agreemen and the next day  decreed  the establishment of the Armenian province. It was said in decree: ”I pronounce the Nakhchevan and Iravan khanetes that have been annexed to Russia according to the agreement signed with Iran  hereafter  will be  called Armenian province. Supreme Senat will be provided with the decrees  on the structure and ruling of the province in time.“

Taking into account the Armenians’ sevices and loyality during the occupation of the Iravan khanete the newly established adminstrative -territorial unit  was called “the Arrmenian province”. In fact, this name was serving creating a buffer zone consisting of Christian Armenians  who were moved from Iran and Turkey and settled in the newly occupied territories.

Russian authorities removed the word “Armenian” from the province  name after they had realized their plans. After the invasion, Russian  administration regime was not  applied immediately, for a period of time the khanete governance forms were followed. Armenian province was divided into Irevan and Nakhchevan provinces and  Ordubad region. Fifteen  districts of former  Irevan khanete were included into Irevan province,  five  districts into Nakhchevan province, and five districts into Ordubad region. Major-General, a commander-in-chief of the armed forces Alexander Chavchavadze was appointed the Chief of the regional office. The members of the Regional office consisted of two Russian military men, Azerbaijani and Armenian representatives. (Chavchavadze’s daughter Nina was Alexander Griboyedov’s wife who was a  Russian playwright and diplomat and was killed in February 1829 when he was an ambassador to Tehran).

Major-general Vasily Bebutov (Beybutov),  a Tiflis Armenian, was appointed to the post of Head of the Province on February 13, 1830. Armenian historian Z.Grigoryan confirmed the prohibition facts on the participation of the Armenians governance of the province and wrote that  when V. Bebutov was  the head of the province  the Russianising policy was strengthened, not only in adminstration centers but also in all districts military and civil posts were occupied by the Russian officials.

On June 23,  1833 Tsar Nicholas I approved a new administrative structure of "Armenian province". Iravan province was divided into four districts: Iravan, Sherur, Surmeli and Serdarabad. On April 10, 1840 the law was adopted  on a new administrative structure of the Southern Caucasus.  According to the new law  "Armenian province” was released" and it was annexed to the newly established Georogian-Imereti province. Pamback-Shorayel distance was annexed to Alexandropol province. In 1844 the Caucasian  viceroyalty  was established. A new administrative division was approved by the on December 14, 1846.  Iravan and Alexandropol provinces were annexed to the newly established Tbilisi viceroyalty. By the decree of the senate on June 9, 1849 the Iravan viceroyalty was established consisting of Iravan, Alexandropol,Nakhichevan Ordubad and Novo-Bayazid provinces.

In 1870 seven districts- Iravan, Alexandropol, Nakhichevan, Novo-Bayazid, Surmeli, Sharur-Dereleyaz and Echmiedzdin - were included in the  Iravan province untill 1918.

In the time of Russian occupation the emblems of Iravan and Gumru (Alexandropol) cities and even the Iravan province were approved. The emblem of Iravan city was approved on May 21, 1843. Here is the describtion of the emblem: Area of the bottom (low) part of the arms had been taken (darted out) from (the) description of the arms of the Gürcü-İmereti province. At the top of Aghri (Ararat) mountaion symbolizing prophit Noah’s ship was described in the first golden area of the forked thyroid board of the emblem. A blue wavy belt in second golden area  was symbolizing the Black Sea. Between the two areas in the silver background there was a cavalryman holding a spear in his hand. The area of the lowest part resembled the Georgian-Imereti province emblem.

There was neither an Armenian governor nor a vice governor among the rulers of the Iravan province. Turkish origin toponyms existing in the territory of the Iravan province were being kept as they were during the reign of tsarist Russia. Only Iravan was replaced with Erivan (1828), Gumru with Alexandropol and Kavar with Novo-Bayazet (1850). The toponyms marked in the administrative-territorial and topographical maps printed during the Russian occupation once more obviously prove that this territory historically belonged to Azerbaijani Turks.

In the result of the earthquake in 1853 the Iravan castle walls fell to the ground.  Since 1868 Iravan City Police Office had been located in Khan Palace, Sardar Hall. The Caucasian viceroyalty allocated resources for the reconstruction of Sardar hall (Mirror Hall) on the basis of petition of Iravan governor in 1867, 1871, 1874, 1880 years.

A merchant by name Nerse Tahiryan purchased a a part of Iravan castle in 1865 and he built winery (present cognac plant). In 1906-1911 years B. Mehrabov, the engineer of Iravan city mapped out the city plan and the existence of 8 mosques (Tepebashi, the City (Zal khan), Sartib khan, Blue Mosque (Huseynali khan), Haji Novruzali bey, Gala mosque (Abbas Mirze mosque ), Demirbulag, Haji Jafar)were marked thereAt that time the names of the streets  in Azerbaijani were: Sheriet, Caravanserai, Gala, Sultan, Cholmekchi, Nakhichevan, Bazar, Dashli, Pasha khan, Garibler odgaghi (hearth), Deyirmanli, Mwesjid, Fehle bazari, Tepebashi, Gebirstan (cemetery),Naib, Mir Jafar, Rustem khan, Imamra, Korbulag, Bey, Ketan, Dukanli, Sallakhlar and so on.

There were   a number of caravanserais in Iravan city as well: Afshar, Sardar, Seykhulislam, Taghli, Sulu, Susuz, Haji Ali, Komurchu, Gurju, Julfa, Haji Ilyas, etc. All these caravanserais that used to belong to the Azerbaijanis had been obliterated.

Till the early XX century the streets in Iravan were lit up with gaz and kerosene lamps. In 1907 Haji Ibrahim oglu, one of the rich inhabitants of Iravan city spoke with the initiative for  the construction of  hydroelectric power station on the Zengi River. In 1909 engineer Khalil bey Gasimbeyov, one richer Azerbaijani inhabitant of the city, applied to the city office for the construction of hydroelectric power station on behalf of the "Coorperation" company that he had established together with his colleague Arshak Malkhasyan. In 1911 water pipe-line was drained from the source the Geder River (from Girkhbulag) to the city (approximately from 19 kms distance). Abbasgulu khan Iravansky had an exceptional role in it.

By the decision dated on May 29, 1918, Azerbaijan National Council (Milli Shura) compramised the city of Iravan to the Armenians as a capital city after three independent countries –Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia had been established in the Caucasus But during the Dashnak Government exisiting in 1918-1920 years the Armenians perpetrated genocide against Azerbaijanis and vandalism against material-cultural monuments belonging to them in the city of Iravan. The Armenians burnt mosques to the ground plundered the Azerbaijanis’houses and properties.

Discrimination and deportation against the Azerbaijanis in the years of the Soviet Power had become the main component of the policy of Armenia. The re-construction of the city Iravan was carried out in 1924 on the project of Alexander Tamanyan, but in fact, it was serving to erase the traces of Azertbaijanis living there historically. The Iravan City History Museum was located in Blue Mosque, Zal khan (the City) mosque turned to the art gallery of the Painters’ Union, but all the other mosques except Demirbulag Mosque in the city had been razed to the ground. Demirbulag Mosque was set fire by Armenian vandals on the March, 1988. Serdar Palace and the walls of Iravan castle were pulled down and they used the stones to lay out Sahil Boulevard. The old districts where the Azerbaijanis used to live were unbuilt and parks, cinemas, squares were laid out and erected on their places.

Though the Armenians are boasting of ancientness of their capital, Irevan is the only city among capitals in the world that the historical-architectural monuments existing there are not more than 200 years old.  As all the historical-architectural monuments existing in Irevan city belonged to the Azerbaijanis they were completely destroyed by the Armenians.  The name of the city of Irevan has been changed two times so far. For the first time in 1828 after the Russian occupatioit it was called Erivan, and for the second time, in 1936, it was renamed and called Yerevan (Erivan).  The bitter reality is that the city of Iravan has become a monoethnic city though at one time aboriginal population of it entirely consisted of the Azerbaijanis. 

The Territory

The Irevan Khannet that was established in the historical Azerbaijani lands in the middle of XVIII century surrounded the area between Aghri (Ararat) and Alagoz (Alayaz) mountains and on the both banks of the Araz River. The Iravan Khannet bordered on the Pambek province, the Shamsaddil and Gazakh Sultanates and the Ganja Khanete in the North, the Garabakh and Nakhchevan Khanetes in the East, the Khoy and Maku Khanetes, the Bayazid Pashalig (the administrative division ruled by pasha) in the South, the Kars Pashalig (the administrative division ruled by pasha) in the West and the Shorayel Sultanete in the Northern-West. 

From the beginning of the XV century till the establishment of the Iravan Khanete the area described above was ruled by the Saadi tribe chiefs belonging to Garagoyunlu tribal community. According to the geographical position it was called   Chukhur- Saad, i.e Saad’s hollow.  The family tomb which was built by Pir Huseyn after his father Amir Saad’s death, the ruler of Chukhur Saad (in some resources it is called the country of Iravan) in 1413, is now in the territory of the village Jafarabad (has been called Argavand since 1946), near Iravan city and the Armenians are trying to present tit as “The Turkman Monument”. After the establishment of the Safavid state in 1501, Azerbaijan was divided into four provinces (beylerbeylik) from the administrative-territorial division point of view and Chukhur-Saad was one of them. The capital of the province was the city of Iravan and it was also known as the Iravan province (beylerbeylik).   The Chukhur-Saad province used to be a part of the Ottoman Turkey at certain times and was known with the Iravan province status. .  In accordance with “The Iravan Province review book” compiled by the Ottomans in 1728, the provice was divided into the following parts from the standpoint of the  territorial-administrative division: Iravan city, Girkhbulag, Karbi, Maku, Khinzirek, Gerni, Vedi, Derechichek, Abaran, Goycha, Daralayaz, Mazra , Surmeli, Ighdir, Aralig, Sherur regions, Shorayel (Shurege) and Nakhchivan.

During the reign of Nadir Shah (from 1736) the Iravan province was a part of  Azerbaijan beylerbeylik . In 1747,  after the assassination of Nadir Shah, the Afsharlar empire collapsed and independent khanates were established. After the establishment of the Safavid state in 1501, Azerbaijan was divided into four provinces (beylerbeylik) from the administrative-territorial division point of view and Chukhur-Saad was one of them. The capital of the province was the city of Irevan and it was also known as the Irevan province (beylerbeylik).  Like  other khanates in  Azerbaijan,  the Ierevan khanate  was also divided into districts from the point of view administrative-territorial division and  districts into villages in their turn.

The Iravan city was taken as a separate administrative-territorial unit.  As the center of the khanate considerable construction work was carried out, a number of mosques, caravanserais, bath-houses that were considered masterpieces of architecture were built.  Iravan castle itself was a grandiose architectural complex like a castle-city.

Agha Mohammad Shah  Gajar made  the Iravan  khanete  be dependent on him in 1795. At the same time Shah Gajar issued  the special decree on subordination of   Shorayel and Pembek areas to Mohammad khan, the khan of Iravan. A Russian historian  Ivan Chopin  held cameral census in the territory of former Iravan Khanete in 1829-1832 years and  gave  comprehensive information about geographical position and administrative units of the provinces and villages destroyed as a result of wars. 

In 1827 on the eve of the Russsian invasion the administrative-territorial division of the Khanate consisted of 15 mahals and Shorayel Sultanete that was semi-depended on the khanete. The names of the districts (or: mahals) were as follows:

1. Girkhbulag    
2. Zengibasar    
3. Gernibasar    
4. Vedibazar
5. Korpubasar
6. Sardarabad    
7. Talin
8. Saadli    
9. Abaran    
10. Seyidli-Aghsaggali
11. Derechichek
12. Goydge    
13. Sherur
14. Derekend-Parchenis
15. Surmeli

Only two of the mahals –Derekend and Surmeli were situated on the right bank of the Araz River. The availability of irrigation systems and villages’proximity to river basins were taken as a main criterion in the creationof mahals. For example, the villages using the water of the river Zengi were included in the  Zangibasar mahal.

Who ruled Iravan?                                                                                                                        

The Chuchursaad province:

Emir Saad (from the end of XIV century till  1410)

Pir Huseyn (1410-1413)

Pir Yagub (Pir Huseyn oglu) (the years of 1420 )

Abdul (Pir Huseyn oglu) (the years of 1440)

Yagub bey (the years of 1440)

Hasanali Garagoyunlu (the years of 1460)

Div Sultan Rumlu (from 1515)

Huseyn khan Sultan Rumlu (from 1550)

Shahgulu Sultan Ustajli (1550-1575)

Mohammad khan Tokhmag Ustajli (1576-1583)

Lele pasha (1577)

Khidir pasha (1583)

Mohamməad Sharif pasha (till 1604)

Emirgune khan Gajar (1604/5-1625)

Tehmasibgulu khan Gajar (1625-1635)

Farhad pasha (1635)

Kalbali khan (1636-1639)

Chaghata Kotuk Mohammad khan (1639/40-1648)

Khosrov khan (1648-1652/53)

Mohammadgulu khan Lele bey (1652/53-1659/60)

Nejefgulu khan (1659/60-1663)

Abbasgulu khan Gajar (Emirgune khan Gajar’s son ) (1663-1666)

Sefi khan (Alkhas Mirza)*** (1666/67-1674)

Sarıikhan bey (1674-1675)

Sefigulu khan (1675-1679)

Zal khan (1679-1688)

Murtuzagulu khan (1688-1691)

Mohammadgulu khan (1691-1694)

Zohrab khan (1694-1699)

Farzali (Fatali) khan Gajar (1699-1705)

Abdul Mohammad khan (1705-1709)

Mehrali khan (1709-1719)

Allahgulu khan (1719-1725)

Rajab pasha (1725-1728)

İbrahim pasha and Mustafa pasha (1728-1734)

Ali pasha defterdar (1734)

Haji Huseyn pasha (1734)

Mohammadgulu khan (1735)

Pir Mohammad khan (1736)

The Irevan khans:

Mehdi khan Gasımli (Əfshar) (1747-1748)

Mohammad Huseyn khan Gerayli (1748-1751)

Khalil khan Ozbek (1751-1755)

Hasanali khan Gajar (1755-1759)

Huseynali khan Gajar (Hasanali khan Gajar’s brother ( 1759/60 – November 1783)

Gulamali khan Gajar (Hasanali khan Gajar’s son) (1783 – summer, 1784 )

Mohammad Huseyn khan Gajar (Hasanali khan Gajar’s son) (1784-June, 1797)

Aligulu khan Gajar (Aga Mohammad shah Gajar’s brother) (June,1797)

Hassan khan Makulu (summer, 1797)

Mehdigulu khan Gajar (summer,1805-August,1806)

Ahmed khan Maraghali (August-October,1806)

Huseyngulu khan Gajar (Goyunlu) (December,1806-October, 1827)


Nazorov İvan İvanovich           


Astafyev Michail  İvanovich   


Roslavlev Michail İvanovich  


Shalikov Michail Yakovlevich 

1880 -1890

Freze Alexander Alexandrovich


Tizenhauzen grafh Vladimir Fedorovich
real civic  councillor


Source :

Nazim Mustafa, Iravan city, Baku-2013

The Iravan Khanete, Russian occupation and moving of the Armenians to the Azerbaijani lands, Baku, 2010, (under the editorship of Yagub Ahmedov,  Honoured Scientist, corresponding member of ANAS, doctor of historical science, prof.)